Colon and Rectal Cancer

What is Colon and Rectal Cancer?

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  • Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start.
  • Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common.

What Causes Colon and Rectal Cancer?

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  • Older age. The great majority of people diagnosed with colon cancer are older than 50.
    Colon cancer can occur in younger people, but it occurs much less frequently.
  • African-American race. African-Americans have a greater risk of colon cancer than do people of other races.
  • A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. If you’ve already had colon cancer or adenomatous polyps, you have a greater risk of colon cancer in the future.
  • Inflammatory intestinal conditions. Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, can increase your risk of colon cancer.
  • Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk. Genetic syndromes passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of colon cancer.
  • Family history of colon cancer. You’re more likely to develop colon cancer if you have a parent, sibling or child with the disease. If more than one family member has colon cancer or rectal cancer, your risk is even greater.
  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet. Colon cancer and rectal cancer may be associated with a diet low in fiber and high in fat and calories.
  • A sedentary lifestyle. If you’re inactive, you’re more likely to develop colon cancer. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk of colon cancer.
  • Diabetes. People with diabetes and insulin resistance may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
  • Obesity. People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer and an increased risk of dying of colon cancer when compared with people considered normal weight.
  • Smoking. People who smoke may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
  • Alcohol. Heavy use of alcohol may increase your risk of colon cancer.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers may increase the risk of colon cancer.

Symptoms of Colon and Rectal Cancer

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  • A change in bowel habits, such as diarrhea, constipation, or narrowing of the stool, that lasts for more than a few days
  • A feeling that you need to have a bowel movement that is not relieved by doing so
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Blood in the stool, which may make it look dark
  • Cramping or abdominal (belly) pain
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Unintended weight loss

Treatment of Colon and Rectal Cancer

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There are several ways to treat colorectal cancer, depending on its type and stage.

  • Surgery (the type of surgery will depend on whether it is for colon or rectal cancer)
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

For advanced colon and rectal cancer, ablation or embolization may also be used.

Links to some studies regarding Colon and Rectal Cancer

    • Guidelines 2000 for Colon and Rectal Cancer Surgery

http://scholar.google.co.in/scholar_url?url=https://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/8/583.full&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm25tS6WgUL30eKK6g14O01l0pZikw&nossl=1&oi=scholarr&ved=0ahUKEwjYk-7p-DNAhULv48KHeQmCu8QgAMIGygBMAA

    • Body size and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

http://scholar.google.co.in/scholar_url?url=http://lup.lub.lu.se/record/403995&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm0gXIl39f8Ci9E-iT91irgQ6LaVkw&nossl=1&oi=scholarr&ved=0ahUKEwjYk-7pLDNAhULv48KHeQmCu8QgAMIHCgCMAA