About cancer

Introduction

Cancer is a disease of the body cells. The cells become abnormal and keep
dividing and forming more cells without control. Normally the cells should divide
and reproduce themselves in an orderly and controlled manner. The abnormal
division and forming of these cells begin to form a lump, which is also known as a
tumor. These Cancer cells are disorganized because they do not differentiate into
the tissue of the organ and they never fulfill the function of the organ. It is possible
that the Cancer can spread even further if the cells break away from the tumor. If
these cells break away they can be carried around the body through the blood
stream or through the lymphatic system. When these cells have settled into another
part of the body it is more than likely that it will begin to grow another tumor.
Cancer cells also produce proteolytic enzymes that attach the membrane and allow
them to invade the tissue. These tumors are also known as secondary tumors. This
is how Cancer grows and reproduces itself within your body until it becomes so
large that it is just a matter of time before you die. IF the tumor or tumors are
detected in the early stages of the disease they can be treated and hopefully prevent
the cells from getting into the blood stream or lymphatic system to stop the
spreading of the disease.

Types

Cancer is a very common disease. Over 153 000 types of cancer has been
discovered like breast, prostate, bone, ovarian, brain cancer and many more.
Patients diagnose with cancer have a hard time, going through those surgeries and
medications.

Out of the more common Cancers they are usually associated with which
organ they usually begin to form in. For example you can have oral cancer which
starts in the mouth, and also you can have cancer of the cervix which starts in the
cervix, also referred to as the lower part of the uterus. Other more common
Cancers are Prostate, Larynx, Lung, and Pancreas. Lung Cancer is one of the most
deadly Cancers of them all. Even if for example Lung Cancer cells spread to the
liver they are still lung Cancer cells and it would still be considered Lung Cancer.

Treatments

Cancer is a very fatal disease and must be treated specially. A common way
to treat this disease would be through the use of Chemotherapy. Surgery is another
option; surgery is when the doctor is cutting into the body and removing the
cancer, along with some body tissue to make sure that anything with this disease
has been removed. Other treatments are hormone and radiation therapy .Hormone
therapy is when a drug is injected or taken orally by the patient. This therapy will
stop the production of cancer and will start to produce healthy regular cells.
Radiation therapy is when a special machine is used that contains high energy rays;
this machine is focused to where the main source of cancer is. This treatment will
destroy the abnormal cells.

Side Effects

These treatments help limit the spread of cancer cells but there are always
going to be side effects like constipation, nausea, delirium, sleeping disorders and
vomiting. Not all patients have the same experiences; it depends on how serious
the cancer is and the physical condition of the patient. Some people go through a
lot of treatments and still will not survive and others will successfully recover.

Causes

There are many causes of cancer such as poor diet, eats not many vegetables,
smoking, alcohol and genetic. When it’s genetic it means that other people in your
family have cancer. It doesn’t technically mean that when a person in your family
has this illness that you’re going to get it. This is why your family history comes in
handy because it can help you plan, prepare and prevent this disease if possible.
Preventing it may sound difficult but to reduce the chance of cancer all you have to
do is stay healthy through diet, exercise and early detection. When it comes to
cancer the best thing to know is its early signs. It increased your chance of
surviving.

Early Signs

Detecting cancers early signs is important. Remember the seven early warning
signs of cancer, think of the word CAUTION:

Change in bowel or bladder habits.
A sore that does not heal.
Unusual bleeding or discharge.
Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles, or elsewhere.
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing.
Obvious change in the size, colour, shape, or thickness of a wart, mole,
or mouthsore.
Nagging cough or hoarseness.

The following symptoms may also signal the presence of some form of cancer:

    • Coughing-up blood
    • Persistent headaches
    • Unexplained loss of weight or appetite
    • Chronic pain in bone.Persistent fatigue, nausea, or vomiting
    • Persistent low-grade fever, either constant or intermittent
    • Repeated instances of infection

Tips to prevent cancer

As you know preventing cancer is a very important part of living well.
Eating healthy foods, having the right diet, avoid smoking, staying away from
harmful chemicals, and eating high fibre foods are things everyone can do to help.
Remember “an ounce of prevention is quart of a cure”.

Emotional Trauma

Being diagnosed with cancer is the worst scenario you could possibly
imagine but the survivors have learned a valuable lesson of life. They continued to
live and some do volunteer their time to help current cancer patients, striving to
battle this disease.
Life after cancer for non-survivors is an emotional time for their families’.
These families lost one of their loved ones. While survivors of cancer have a long
path ahead of them, they will start a new life with a better lifestyle and will
remember how lucky they are. It’s a start of a new life, for every one.

Fact sheet on cancer in India
1. Do you know Cancer is growing @ 25% p.a. in India?
a. In 2014, Government estimated that 7.5 lac new cases will be detected
in a year
b. In 2015 this figure was revised to 11.5 lac new cases in a year
c. In 2016, this estimate has been further increased to 14.5 lac new cases
in a year
2. Mortality rate for cancer in India is one of the worst…. Do you know the
reason for that?
a. In only 12.5% cases in India cancer gets detected in the first stage
itself
b. Lack of awareness about cancer prevents early diagnosis
c. In more than 30% cases, patients have the tendency to go for quacks
or untested alternate treatments
d. Shortage of treatment centers in the country (Most of the centers are
concentrated in A Category towns only)
3. More than 50% of cancers are fully cure able is detected in early stage
4. In 30% cases, cancer is preventable by change in life style…
5. Do you know why cancer is considered “Death” in India?
a. Lack of awareness about cancer
b. Non detection of disease in early stage
c. Shortage of qualified doctors and treatment facilities in the country.
i. There are only 300+ cancer treatment centers in india while
more than 600 are required
ii. Doctor patient ratio is 1 is to 2000, whereas it should be 1 is to
600
d. Financial stress
i. Lack of medical security to the majority population
ii. Treatment funded through savings
iii. High cost of treatment ~ Rs 5 lac to Rs 50 lac
iv. More than 30% patients lose their livelihood during treatment
v. More than 80% fail to get re employed for minimum 3 years
due to stigma in society
vi. More than 3.5 lac families being pushed to poverty line due to
cancer
6. This situation can be averted by:
a. A proper knowledge about cancer, its causes, treatment options,
availability etc
b. Awareness about need for health check ups and regular health check
ups
c. Proper financial planning i.e. insurance coverage to meet treatment
expenses
d. Proper investment planning so that you have funds to face unforeseen
situations